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1810 – Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, Marshal of France and renowned military leader is elected to be Crown Prince of Sweden, to succeed the childless Charles XIII. He is the founder of the current reigning House of Bernadotte in Sweden.

1165 – Phillip Augustus is born in France as the son of Louis VII of France. In 1179, he was crowned as co-ruler with his father, and then became King in his own right in 1180. He was Phillip II, King of France, and the first to use that title, as his predecessors are called King of the Franks. He went on the Third Crusade with Richard the Lionheart and Frederick Barbarossa, and after Richard’s death, he successfully dismantled the Angevin Empire of France, now led by King John of England. He was popular with the commons, for taking power from the nobles, and is known as one of the more successful medieval monarchs.

1643- Afonso IV of Portugal is born as a younger son of John IV and Luisa of Medina-Sidonia. An illness as a toddler left his mentally unstable and partially paralyzed. He succeeded his father at age 13, with his mother acting as regent for six years. Despite his mental instability Portugal scored some major military victories under him, but in 1668, his brother Peter was appointed Prince Regent and ruled on Afonso’s behalf until his death in 1683.

1765 – The future William IV of the United Kingdom is born in Britain. He would become King in 1830, after the death of his elder brother, George IV. Like the other British Hanoverian kings, he was also ruler of the German province of Hanover, which he never visited as King. He had spent time in his youth in the Royal Navy, and later was active in the House of Lords. He enacted several reforms during his short reign, including restrictions on child labor, the abolition of slavery in the majority of the colonies, and gave Hanover a constitution. Although he had several illegitimate children, he had none with his wife, Queen Adelaide, when he passed. So the Crown of Britain went to his niece, Princess Alexandrina Victoria of Kent, now Queen Victoria. Hanover observed Salic law, so his brother, Ernest Augustus, became King there.

1858 – Austrian Crown Prince Rudolf is born as the only son of Emperor Franz Joseph and Empress Elisabeth. Despite being groomed from an early age to be Emperor, he was quite different politically from his father. He married Princess Stephanie of Belgium and had a daughter. However he was unfaithful. In 1889, he was found dead from an apparent murder-suicide, next to a mistress of his. His mother wore black for mourning for the rest of her life.

1157 – Alfonso VII of Leon and Castile died at age 52. He was the son of Urraca of Castile and Raymond of Burgundy, and in 1111, as a child, he was named King of Galicia by his mother. In 1126, she died, leaving Alfonso as King of Leon and Castile. He called himself Emperor of All Spain. He also participated in the Reconquista of lower Spain, attempting to expel the Muslims. Before his death, he split his lands between his two elder sons, and his daughters would go on to be Queens of France, Navarre, and Aragon.