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1485 – The Battle of Bosworth Field takes place in England, as one of the last battles of the Wars of the Roses. Henry Tudor, a Lancastrian claimant the throne, landed earlier in the month, and met the forces fighting for King Richard III, who took the crown 2 years earlier. Henry was descended from Edward III, but through an illegitimate line. However the battle would go in favor for the Lancastrians, and Richard was killed in battle. Henry was given the crown Richard wore during battle after the fighting, and crowned in London in October. He would also then marry Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV, and niece to Richard III, uniting the Lancasters and Yorks under the House of Tudor.

1642 – Charles I raised the Royal standard above the town of Nottingham in England. This was essentially his call-to-arms against the Parliamentarians, who had already taken London. His wife and children had already been sent to France. Charles would be defeated in the English Civil War, and the monarchy replaced with the Protectorate. Charles was executed in 1649.

1854 – The future Milan I of Serbia is born as a member of the noble House of Obrenovic. At age 14, he succeeded his uncle as Sovereign Prince of Serbia with a regency. He became of age in 1872, and showed himself to be a capable and fair ruler. In 1882, he was declared as the first king of Serbia until his sudden abdication in favor of his young son, Alexander, in 1889. Milan renounced his titles and citizenship, but as the political situation with Russia grew tense over the years, he was reinstated as a member of the royal family and returned as an advisor and military leader under his son. He died suddenly in 1901, after he resigned his posts, following his son’s marriage.

1188 – Ferdinand II of Leon dies in Spain at about age 50. His father, Alfonso VII was king of Castile and Leon, so at his death, Ferdinand received rule of Leon, and his brother became Sancho III of Castile. His reign was marred with wars with other Spanish nations and the Muslims of Southern Spain. He would be married three times, with the first ending in annulment, and the second in her death. Only one of his six children would live into adulthood.

1350 – Phillip VI of France died after 22 years of rule. He was of the House of Valois, and a cousin to King Charles IV, who died childless in 1328. France observed Salic law, so Charles’ nephew, Edward III of England could not technically inherit the throne. However, Edward invaded anyway, starting what we know as the Hundred Years War. All in all, his reign was marred with crises. Phillip would be succeeded by his son, John II, or John the Good.

1358 – Isabella of France, passed away in England while in her early 60’s. She was the only surviving daughter of Phillip IV of France and Joan I of Navarre. At about age 12, she was married to the new English King, Edward II. They would have four children, including the future Edward III. The marriage was happy, but Edward’s reign was married by disputes with his barons, and he and Isabella were eventually estranged. In 1326, she led an invasion of England, that ultimately deposed her husband in favor of her son. She acted as unofficial regent for four years, until Edward took rule himself. She lived as an advisor and grandmother until her death.

1485 – Richard III died during the Battle of Bosworth Field. The details are discussed above in Events.