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1200 – King John of England marries his second wife, the teenaged Isabella of Angouleme. The marriage would last until John’s death, and produce several children, including the future Henry III.

1561 – William the Silent, Prince of Orange and Stadtholder of the Netherlands marries his second wife, Anna of Saxony. The married would only last nine years, until William died. The marriage was unhappy, but they managed to have five children.


1113- Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou is born in France. At age 15, he was married to Matilda, former Holy Roman Empress, and daughter of King Henry I of England. She was 11 years his senior, and the marriage was unhappy. Geoffrey fought for his wife’s cause during The Anarchy, a civil war in which she pressed her claim to rule England. He died suddenly at age 38, but his son, Henry, would go on to be King Henry II of England.

1198 – Alexander II of Scotland is born to William I Ermengarde de Beaumont. In 1214, he succeeded his father as King of Scots, after spending time in the English court, even being knighted by King John. He even married John’s daughter, Joan of England. However, he would spend part of his reign at war with his brother in law, Henry III of England. Sadly Joan died early, and they had no children. Alexander remarried in 1239, and with his second wife, Marie de Coucy, they would have the future Alexander III. He died in 1249, at age 50, while in the Hebrides, trying to reclaim them from Norway.

1758 – Duchess Sophia Frederica of Schwerin-Mecklenburg is born in Germany. In 1774, she married Danish Hereditary Prince Frederick. They were not unhappy, and mostly friendly to each other, but carried on affairs. Sophia and Frederick had five children to survive, including the future King Christian VIII. She died in 1794, at the age of 36.

1772 – William I of the Netherlands was born in The Hague. His parents were William V, Prince of Orange, and last Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic, and Princess Wilhelmina of Prussia. As a young man, he served in the Dutch military against the First French Republic. However, in 1795, they were defeated, and his family was overthrown and forced to flee. Later, he returned to the continent and fought against the French again, during the Napoleonic Wars. In 1815, after the defeat and overthrow of the Bonaparte family, who briefly ruled the Netherlands, he was installed as King of the Netherlands. His rule was eventful, and saw the Belgian revolution and many constitutional changes, and the conservative William abdicated in 1840, three years before his death.

1865 – The future Ferdinand I of Romania is born in Sigmarigen, Germany. In 1886, after his father renounced his claim, Ferdinand became heir to his uncle, Carol I of Romania. He was not forced to convert to Eastern Orthodoxy from Catholicism, but was required by Parliament to raise his children in the state religion. He was excommunicated for this, but later re-admitted to the church. In 1893, he married the indomitable Marie of Edinburgh, also known as Marie of Romania. In 1914, he became King, and ruled through the whole of World War I, fighting against the German House of Hohenzollern, who Ferdinand was related to, to great offense of Wilhelm II of Germany. He passed away in 1927, leaving the Romanian throne to his young grandson, Michael I, the last king of Romania.

No major deaths.