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Birthdays:
1530 – Ivan Vasilyevich is born in Russia to Grand Prince of Moscow Vasili III and Elena Glinskya. When Ivan was just 3 years old, he succeeded his father as Grand Prince of Moscow, after Vasili’s sudden death. In 1547, he was crowned as Tsar of all the Russia’s as Ivan IV. Throughout his reign, he was able to successfully navigate political changes in his nation, however, his economic policies were disastrous for Russia. It would be his harsh nature and quick temper that helped give him the nickname “Ivan the Terrible”. At one point in 1581, his temper got the best of him, and he hit his son, also named Ivan, over the head with a staff, killing the young man. This left his younger son, Feodor, as his heir. Ivan had also been married eight times, and through his children with his first wife, Anastasia Romanovna, the Romanov family would come to rule Russia.

1707 – Louis I of Spain is born in Madrid as the son of King Phillip V and Maria Luisa of Savoy. In 1722, Louis was forced to marry the French Princess Louise Elisabeth d’Orleans. The marriage was unhappy, there would be no children, and Louise was said to be so unhappy, she would refuse to see her husband. His father abdicated in 1724, but Louis’ reign would be short lived, as he died of smallpox just 7 months later. Phillip, his father, returned to the throne.

1786 – The future Ludwig I of Bavaria is born to Maximillian I Joseph and Augusta Wilhelmine of Hesse-Darmstadt. He succeeded his father in 1825 and ruled until his abdication in 1848. In 1810, he married Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen, and the following celebration was the first Oktoberfest. His policies got more and more repressive as time went on, until revolution struck and forced him to abdicate. His remaining years were spent on cultural projects and buildings, during the reign of his son, Maximilian II.

1845 – Ludwig II of Bavaria is born in Munich. He was the eldest son of Maximilian II of Bavaria and Marie of Prussia. He became King at age 18, after his father died suddenly in 1864. His youth and dashing good looks made him very popular. Ludwig was a great patron of the arts, including composer Richard Wagner. He also began construction on palaces throughout Bavaria, including the famed Neuschwanstein Castle, which he paid for out of his own pocket. However in 1886, he was deposed by his ministers, who had him declared insane by doctors who never examined him. The day after he was moved, he was found dead in waist deep water, with no water in his lungs. He was 40 years old at his death, childless, and succeeded by his actually insane brother, Otto, with their uncle as regent.

Deaths:
1270 – King Louis IX of France died in Africa while fighting on the Eighth Crusade. He was the son of Louis VIII and Blanche of Castile, and became King in 1226. Louis was later canonized by the Catholic church and he is he only French king to be Sainted. Because of his veneration, he is pictured as the quintessential Christian monarch, and many cities, including the American city of Saint Louis, Missouri.

1482 – Margaret of Anjou dies in France at age 52. She would be married to Henry VI of England in 1445. The would have one son, called Edward of Westminster. Margaret also became one of the principal figures in the War of the Roses, when she acted as regent for her husband during his bouts of mental instability. She helped to lead the Lancastrian forces before her husband’s overthrow, and after his restoration in 1470. However, after the defeat of the Lancasters in 1471. She was captured and later ransomed back to France. She was vilified throughout most of history and even referred to as a “She-wolf of France” by Shakespeare in the plays about her husband.

1699 – Christian V of Denmark died in Copenhagen.He was the son of Frederick III and Queen Sophie Amalie and the father of the future Frederick IV. He was quite popular with the common people for allowing them into state service. Christian is considered to be one of the more poorly educated Danish kings, a title which he seemed to be okay with. He lists his primary interests in his memoirs as “hunting, love-making, war and maritime affairs”.

1942 – Prince George, Duke of Kent is killed in battle during World War II. He was the son of King George V and Queen Mary. He was the younger brother to Edward VIII and George VI, and thus the paternal uncle to Queen Elizabeth II. He was given the title Duke of Kent in 1934, and it would pass to his son, Prince Edward, at his death.

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