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1346 – The Battle of Crecy takes place as part of the Hundred Years War between France and England. The battle was a major one in the early times of the war, and an important victory for England, who heavily used their famous longbows.


1469 – Ferdinand II of Naples is born in Italy to king Alfonso II of Naples and Ippolita Maria Sforza. He became king in 1495, when his father abdicated. The French army soon invaded, and Ferdinand would be overthrown. He would be restored the following year, but die shortly after reclaiming his throne.

1819 – Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha is born in Germany to the Ducal family. In 1840, he married his young first cousin, Queen Victoria of Great Britain. They would have nine children, and he would be a major influence on Victoria, who was completely devoted and dependent on him. Given the title Prince Consort, he undertook many public causes and was a devoted father to his children. His early death at age 42 plunged Victoria in mourning, from which she would never fully emerge from.

1826 – Princess Alexandra of Bavaria is born as a younger daughter of Ludwig I of Bavaria and Theresa of Saxe-Hildburghausen. Alexandra never had children, or married. Instead she devoted her life to religious and literary pursuits. She would publish several books of poetry and produce plays. Her life was overshadowed by eccentricities and possible mental illness, however.

1944 – In not-so-dead royalty, Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester is born in England as the son of Prince Henry and Princess Alice. He was the youngest grandchild of King George V and Queen Mary, and is a first cousin to Queen Elizabeth II. He undertakes many royal duties and patronages.


1850 – French King Louis Phillippe I died in British exile. He was a member of the Orleans branch of the French royal family, and was declared king in 1830, after the overthrow of Charles X. Initially popular, his policies eventually led to his downfall and forced abdication in 1848.