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Events:
1619 – Ferdinand II is elected Holy Roman Emperor, succeeding his childless cousin, Matthias. Under his rule, the Thirty Years War would start.

1913 – Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands officially opened the Peace Palace in The Hague. The concept of diplomats and philanthropists (including Andrew Carnegie). It is the home of the International Court of Justice, the Permanent Court of Arbitration, The Hague Academy of International Law, and other organizations.

1996 – The divorce of the Prince and Princess of Wales, Charles and Diana, would be final. Diana would die suddenly in a car crash the following year.

Birthdays:
1667 – Louise of Mecklenburg-Gustrow is born in Germany to the Ducal family of Mecklenburg-Gustrow. In 1695, she married the future Frederick IV of Denmark, and they became King and Queen in 1699. Frederick was famously unfaithful, even entering into bigamous marriages. She was dutiful, but never very popular. Louise amassed a large collection of religious books during her time, which was donated after her death, with much praise from the clergy. Her son would become Christian IV, but Louise would die in 1721.

1691 – Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel is born in Germany. Elisabeth was the oldest daughter of Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Princess Christine Louise of Oettingen. In 1708, she married Austrian Archduke Charles in Spain, the future Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. In 1711, they succeeded to the Imperial throne, but Charles went alone, leaving Elisabeth as Governor of Catalonia, where we was said to be a wise and effective ruler. She joined him later, and gave him four children, with only two surviving into adulthood. Her oldest surviving child would be the indomitable future Empress Maria Theresa. Elisabeth would live well into her daughter’s reign, dying in Vienna at age 58.

1694 – Charlotte Christine of Brunswick-Lüneburg is born to the Duke and Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg. She shared a birthday with her elder sister, Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Charlotte was married in 1711, to Tsarevitch Alexei, the son of Peter the Great of Russia. She was isolated at court, and never fully assimilated into the Russian court. Charlotte gave birth to two children, a daughter named Natalia, then a son, the future Peter II. Her death came just a few days after the birth of Peter. She was only 21 years old.

Deaths:

1481 – Afonso V of Portugal died in Lisbon, at age 49. He was the son of King Edward of Portugal and Eleanor of Aragon. In 1438, He became king at age 6, under the rule of a regency. He spent many years on campaign in North Africa, fighting the Muslims by Papal decree. He would attempt to claim the throne of Castile from Isabella I, but to no avail. Afonso would retire after, abdicating in favour of his son, and spending the rest of his life in a monastery.

1943 – Tsar Boris III of Bulgaria died of heart failure in his home country. He had just met with Adolf Hitler a few days before, and it has been suspected that the German leader poisoned him. Her had been Tsar since the abdication of his father, Ferdinand I, in 1918, after World War I. During World War II, Bulgaria was allied with Germany, but Boris did not cede control to the Nazis. Boris also refused to deport Bulgarian Jews, and helped many escape to other countries.

1972 – Prince William of Gloucester died in a crash at an air show. He was the son of Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, a grandson to King George V, and a cousin to Queen Elizabeth II. William was just 30 years old, and unmarried. In 1968, he had been diagnosed with porphyria, a blood disorder, but had continued to attend to royal duties. He was close to his cousin, Charles, Prince of Wales, who would name his eldest son in his honor.

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